Faculty & Staff

Cindy Brooks Dollar

Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies
PhD, North Carolina State University, 2014

Email: cbdollar@uncg.edu

Click here for Dr. Brooks-Dollar’s CV

Research and Teaching Interests

Sociology of Deviance, Harm, and Control; Criminological Theory; Inequalities


Personal Statement

I view social deviance (its definition, enactment, and punishment) as inextricably linked to broad social issues. Collectively, my research focuses on links between inequalities, harm, and social control. I investigate patterns of substance use, violence, and non-conventional family structures as well as interactions occurring within “specialty courts,” including drug courts, mental health courts, and family courts. As a teacher, I encourage student engagement in learning and promote critical thinking and writing. I organize my classes in a way that introduces students to historical and contemporary scholarship and emphasizes the value of sociological theory and research methods.


Peer-Reviewed Publications by topic (*=graduate student coauthor)


Social Trauma

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. Forthcoming. “Embodying Non-speciesism through Altered States of Consciousness” in Violence and Harm in the Animal Industrial Complex: Human-Animal Entanglements, edited by G. Hunnicut & K. Mentor, Routledge.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks and Grant Tietjen. 2023. Living as Socially Marked Individuals: Two Stories on Stigma and Its Consequences. Humanity & Society 47(1): 3-28.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2021. I Never Wanted To Be A Stereotype: A Sociologist’s Narrative of Healing. New York: Peter Lang.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2020. “Trauma, Yoga, and Trauma Recovery: From the Clinical to the Sociological.” In Realizing Nonviolent Resilience: Neoliberalism, Societal Trauma, and Marginalized Voice, edited by Jeremy Rinker and Jerry Lawler. New York: Peter Lang.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2019. Personal Trauma, Social Pain, and Therapeutic Jurisprudence: Renewing Focus on an Existential Sociology. International Society for Therapeutic Jurisprudence. https://mainstreamtj.wordpress.com/2019/11/09/psychological-trauma-social-pain-and-therapeutic-jurisprudence/ (also via twitter @intlTJsociety)

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2017. “Does the Use of Binary Indicators Reify Difference and Inequality?” Women’s Studies International Forum 61(2): 9–13.


Substance Use

Dollar, Cindy Brooks and Josh Hendrix. Forthcoming. “Re-examining the Meatpacking-Methamphetamine Hypothesis” in Violence and Harm in the Animal Industrial Complex: Human-Animal Entanglements, edited by G. Hunnicut & K. Mentor, Routledge.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2022. “Heads, Seekers, Psychonauts, and One-Timers: Patterns of Psychedelic Consumption.” Journal of Drug Issues.  OnlineFirst https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/00220426221128191

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2021. “Recreation and Realization: Reported Motivations of Use among Persons Who Consume Psychedelics in Non-Clinical Settings.” Journal of Qualitative Criminal Justice and Criminology. https://www.qualitativecriminology.com/pub/vkpkloso/release/1

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2019. “Criminalization and Drug ‘Wars’ or Medicalization and Health ‘Epidemics’: How Race, Class, and Neoliberal Politics Influence Drug Laws.” Critical Criminology. 27(2): 305-327.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks and Joshua Hendrix. 2018. “I’m Not a Traditional Woman:” Tranquilizer Misuse as Self-Medication Among Adult Women” American Behavioral Scientist 62(11): 1562-1585.

Hendrix, Joshua and Cindy Brooks Dollar. 2017. “American Slaughterhouses and the Need for Speed: An Examination of the Meatpacking-Methamphetamine Hypothesis” Organization & Environment 30(2) 1-19.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks and Joshua Hendrix.  2015. “The Importance of Romantic and Work Relations on Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use Among Adults.” Sociological Spectrum 35(5): 465-481.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks and Bradley Ray. 2013. “Adult Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use:  An Examination of Bond Theory.”  Deviant Behavior 34(11): 932-949.


 “Therapeutic” or Diversionary courts (*=graduate student)

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2020. “Therapeutically (Un)Just Interactions in Family Court Proceedings.” Criminal Justice Policy Review 31(2): 262-286. Summarized in 2019 Council on Contemporary Families Brief Report titled “Are Family Courts Therapeutically Just?” https://thesocietypages.org/ccf/2019/03/19/are-family-courts-therapeutically-just/

Dollar, Cindy Brooks, Bradley Ray, Mary Kay Hudson, and Brittany J. Hood*. 2018. “Examining Changes in Procedural Justice and Their Influence on Problem-Solving Court Outcomes.” Behavioral Sciences & the Law 36(1): 32-45.

Ray, Bradley and Cindy Brooks Dollar. 2018. “Procedural Justice and Compliance in Problem-Solving Courts.”  In Contextualizing Compliance: Individual Motivations, Social Processes and Institutional Design, edited by S. Siddiki, T. Heikkila, and S. Espinosa. New York: Routledge. 

Dollar, Cindy Brooks and Bradley Ray. 2015. “The Practice of Reintegrative Shaming in Mental Health Court.” Criminal Justice Policy Review, Special Issue on Restorative Justice and Community Corrections 26(1): 29-44.

Ray, Bradley and Cindy Brooks Dollar. 2014. “Exploring Stigmatization and Stigma Management in Mental Health Court: Assessing Modified Labeling Theory in a New Context.” Sociological Forum 29(3): 720-735.

Ray, Bradley and Cindy Brooks Dollar. 2013. “Examining Mental Health Court Completion: A Focal Concerns Perspective.”  The Sociological Quarterly 54(4): 647-699.

Ray, Bradley, Cindy Brooks Dollar and Kelly Thames. 2011. “Mental Health Courts as Reintegrative Shaming.” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 34: 49-55.


Ecological Studies of Crime & Nonconformity (*=graduate student)

Wang, Ting and Cindy Brooks Dollar. Forthcoming. “Testing Mismatch Liberation Theory Across Race-Ethnicity and Gender” in Perceptions of Female Offenders (Vol.2), edited by B.L. RussellSpringer.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks, Ellen Donnelly and Karen Parker. 2019 “Joblessness, Poverty and Neighborhood Crime: Testing Wilson’s Assertions of Jobless Poverty” Social Currents 6(4): 343–360

Dollar, Cindy Brooks, Patricia McCall, Kenneth Land, and Joshua Fink*. 2017 “Age Structure and Neighborhood Homicide: A Test and Elaboration of the Differential Institutional Engagement Hypothesis.”  Homicide Studies 21(3): 1-24.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2017. “Sex Ratios, Single Motherhood, and Gendered Structural Relations: Examining Female-Headed Families across Racial-Ethnic Populations.” Sociological Focus 50(4): 375-390.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2015. “Sex Ratio Effects on Marital Formation and Dissolution, 1980-2000.” Sociological Inquiry 85(4): 556-575.

McCall, Patricia L., Kenneth C. Land, Cindy Brooks Dollar, Karen F. Parker. 2013. “The Age Structure-Crime Rate Relationship: Solving a Long-Standing Puzzle.”  Journal of Quantitative Criminology 29(2): 167-190.


Other Theoretical Issues of Social Deviance (*=graduate student)

Bethune, Kristen* and Cindy Brooks Dollar. 2020. “Explaining Collegiate Sexual Assault Offending and Victimization Using a Feminized Routine Activities Framework” Sociation 19(2): 1-13.

Tittle, Charles R. and Cindy Brooks Dollar. 2019. “Control Balance Theory of Deviance.” In Handbook of Crime and Deviance, 2nd edition, edited by Marvin Krohn, Gina Penley Hall, Alan J. Lizotte & Nicole Hendrix. New York: Springer.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2014. “Racial Threat Theory: Assessing the Evidence, Requesting Redesign.” Journal of Criminology http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/983026.

Dollar, Cindy Brooks. 2014. “Conceptual Remixing in Criminology: Tracing Durkheim and Marx’s Influence on Etiological Theories of Crime.” Sociology Compass 8(10): 1157-1166.



Teaching Experience

Undergraduate level

Introduction to Sociology

Current Social Problems

Social Deviance

Introduction to Data Analysis

Criminal Justice


Drugs & U.S. Society

Considering Ourselves Offenders, Victims, & Survivors

Internships in Sociology


Independent Studies Courses:

-The Relationship between School Racial Composition

and Student Health

-Attorney Perceptions of Judicial Discretion

-Social and Demographic Correlates of School Shootings

-The Carceral State, Mental Health, and the African

American Experience

-Writing Personal Narratives

Graduate level

Criminology Seminar

Advanced Data Analysis

Social Control Seminar








Independent Studies Courses:

-Racialization and Gendering of Athletic Bodies

-Double Stigmas: Mental Health Concerns among

African Americans

-Slave Patrols and the Origin of American Policing

-Social Media Portrayals of Black American Women

-Racial Disparities in Sentencing among Women


-Somatic Therapeutics in the Carceral State


Service for the Discipline

2023-Present   Nominations Committee, Association for Humanist Sociology (AHS)

2023-Present   AKD Student Mentor

2018-Present   Editorial Board, Critical Criminology

2018-Present   Editorial Board, Sociation (formerly Sociation Today)

2019-2023       Grant Reviewer, National Science Foundation (NSF)

2020-2022       Chair of the Lee Student Support Fund Committee, Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP)

2015-2018       Executive Committee, North Carolina Sociological Association (NCSA)

2016-2017       Thematic Panel Developer and Presider, American Society of Criminology (ASC)

2011-2013      Membership Committee Member, American Sociology Association’s Crime, Law & Deviance Section


Peer Reviewer for the following Journals: Journals: Social Problems; Social Science Research; Violence Against Women; Critical Criminology; Law and Society Review; Crime, Law and Social Change; Deviant Behavior; Feminist Theory; Crime & Delinquency; Homicide Studies; Justice Quarterly; Urban Studies; Criminal Justice & Behavior; Social Science & Medicine; Criminal Justice Policy Review; Sociological Inquiry; Journal of Adolescent Health; Journal of School Violence; Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health; Sociation; Sociation Today; The Journal of Qualitative Criminal Justice & Criminology; Population Research and Policy Review; Journal of Criminal Justice; International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction; Children and Youth Services Review; European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, Journal of Global Research in Education and Social Science; Journal of Basic and Applied Research International


Peer Reviewer for the following Books: Innocent Inmates and Indirect Victims: The Tangible and Intangible Costs of Victimization (Routledge book proposal 2020); Insiders, Outsiders, Hiders, & Drifters: A General Theory of Deviance Management (University of California Press 2018); Civil Court Responses to Intimate Partner Violence (Cognella book proposal 2018); Applied Analytical Methods Survival Guide (Kendall Hunt Publishing 2017); Perspectives on Deviance and Social Control (Sage Publishing 2015, 2017); Deviant Behavior (Taylor and Francis 2017)



Service for the Community

2019-2020       Community (free) Yoga Classes, B Natural Academy of Music and Arts

2016-2017       Benevolence Farm, Advisory Member to Programming

2015-2016       Benevolence Farm, Programming Committee Member